Radio and television are considered broadcast media meaning that their inventory is “airtime” and the audience each program commands. The rating is relative to audience measurement and thus the price radio and television stations set to sell this air space to buyers, advertising agencies and clients in general is related to the “eyeballs or ears”” that these shows generate.

Transcript Ratings and Impressions

Broadcast media, or radio and television, are measured in ratings.  Share is another of those companion statistics for ratings. As a matter of fact, “shares puts ratings into perspective”. Share is another percentage like ratings, but of people actually watching or tuned in to a particular program.

Transcript Shares HUTs PUTs

In Media and advertising, we need to have a good idea of what percentage of the audience was reached without duplication or counted only one time, but because we know that more than likely they saw the advertising message more than one time throughout the course of the campaign or the schedule, we need to average the level of exposure. Reach is the % of unduplicated exposure and Frequency accounts for the duplication by averaging the exposure.

Transcript Reach and Frequency

The purpose of this lesson is to continue building upon the application of ratings and impressions as the currency to evaluate the efficiency of programming vehicles and media in general as they relate to pricing and delivery of audiences. In the previous video lesson you learned Calculating Cost per Point, Cost per Thousand and using this analysis to make better programming decisions based on rates.

Transcript CPM and CPP in a TV Schedule

The purpose of this lesson is to continue building upon the application of ratings and impressions as the currency to evaluate the efficiency of programming vehicles and media in general as they relate to pricing and delivery of audiences. In the previous video lesson you learned about ratings and impressions. In this lesson, we will go deeper and applying cost or rates for programs to understand how to apply these audience measurements and their applications. When I say cost or rates is the cost for, say, a thirty second commercial to air in the commercial break of a given program.



The purpose of this lesson is to talk about a mathematical analysis called the Index. What I especially like about using an Index is that, when it is calculated, you can do automatically see, if the consumption of a product is average, above average or below average. It is an analysis used to make strategic decisions in media and marketing, in general.

Transcript Index Simple

The purpose of this lesson is to present a more advanced use of the Index. In the last lesson about Index, you learned how to read and understand the calculation of an Index in syndicated data sources such as Simmons MRI. In this lesson you will learn how to set an index based on your data. Remember that an index allows you to make strategic decisions to determine who to advertise defined as the “target”, where to advertise defined as the “market” and when to advertise defined as “campaign dates of flight dates”. This is an advanced way to use data to support your recommendations based on levels of consumption as determined by seasonality, regions and demographics and the resulting calculation is also known as BDI or Brand Development Index and CDI or Category Development Index.

Transcript Index Advanced

The application of the Coverage and composition audience measures works across any medium. In media, we use both measures to help us identify the best media for an advertising campaign. Coverage helps us determine the potential size of the audience we might expose the message to. Composition helps us understand that audience better and minimize waste.

Transcript Coverage and Composition

Fixed position is when an advertiser is very specific with the media (station, print, radio, etc.) of where the advertising message is to be placed. Fixed position is generally higher in cost than ROS. The less freedom of placement the media has, and the more the advertiser dictates specifically where the advertising message is placed, the higher the cost of placement. The opposite of a fixed position is ROS. ROS is also known as Run of Station, Run of Schedule or Run of Site (for internet websites) which means that the advertiser is allowing the station the freedom of placement with certain defined parameters. The more freedom of placement the media has of the advertising, it is generally less expensive. The opposite of ROS is fixed position. In an ROS schedule, the advertiser cannot dictate placement and has to agree on the advertising placed within the parameters stipulated for generally a lesser cost.

Transcript Understanding ROS vs Fixed Positions and Posting in Media Placement

Agency media commission is a system of compensating the advertising agency for the work of negotiating, placing and stewardship or monitoring a schedule at an industry standard of 15%. Rates extended by media to advertising agencies may or may not include the industry standard 15% commission. Gross rates are the media rates with the 15% agency commission already added. Net Rates are the media rates without the 15% agency commission. Avails or availabilities is a report extended to the advertiser and the advertising agency that is a list of the costs or rates charged for the insertion of commercial units in various lengths, measured in seconds.

Transcript Working with Radio Avails

The purpose of this lesson is to study the concept of audience projections in media planning / buying and selling, in this specific example, television ratings. Understanding that we are always planning into the future, this concept of projecting audiences is very important to understand.

Transcript Understanding TV Projections

We are living in an era where magazines are not just magazines, but literally cross-platform media brands. Nowadays, magazines are extended beyond the physical printed copy sold in the newsstands or received via mail by subscribers. Magazines have extensions in social media such as Twitter followers, or App downloads, or Pinterest pins, or e-newsletters, and digital versions, that go above and beyond their audited print subscribers and newsstand sales. This lesson is about Rate Cards or a printed list of advertising rates charged by media. Rate cards, usually, are for guidance only because the actual charges vary greatly according to the bargaining power of the advertiser and supply and demand of inventory by the media.

Transcript Working with a Magazine Rate Card

When measuring the success or limitations of digital or online campaigns (and offline for that matter), we have been studying the concept of KPIs or Key Performance Indicators. This has become a buzz words to mean specific goals to measure the effectiveness and success of a campaign. Like many phrases adopted by the online ad industry, it has a precedent. The KPIs we are about to learn are several, we will learn how to calculate a click through rate, a conversion rate and if the investment was worth it, in other words, did the campaign make money.

Transcript Calculating CTR, Conversion Rate and ROI

Direct mail marketing is the obvious precursor of the email marketing, but the one common denominator is that they go directly to the end user; it is just a matter of the mode of delivery. Before there was technology, good old fashion mail was the way to go. In this video lesson, we will look at both by learning simple formulas: response rate and open rate.

Transcript Calculating response rate direct mail and open rate email marketing

Promoter Score or NPS is a calculated number used nowadays by many large companies as a customer feedback tool. The calculated number or score is an unambiguous number that is easy to understand for all employees and serves as a useful input for managers to assess if their customers are satisfied or whether adjustments need to be made based on this score. The NPS also gives a good indication of growth potential and customer loyalty for a company or product.

Transcript Calculating Net Promoter Score